gms | German Medical Science

76th Annual Meeting of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

04.05. - 08.05.2005, Erfurt

History of the otolaryngology in Poland

Meeting Abstract

Search Medline for

  • corresponding author Zygmunt Szmeja - ENT Department, Poznan, Poland
  • Karl Hörmann - Univ.HNO-Klinik, Mannheim

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie. 76. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie e.V.. Erfurt, 04.-08.05.2005. Düsseldorf, Köln: German Medical Science; 2005. Doc05hno179

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Published: September 22, 2005

© 2005 Szmeja et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



In the history presented in this paper we can distinguish the following periods: annexation 1795-1918, independence 1918-1939, captivity 1939-1944/45, contempotary period 1944/45-2000.

Period of annexation 1795-1918:

In 1862 Wiktor Szokalski was nominated the professor of ophthalmology and otiatrics in the High School in Warsaw. In 1879 Przemyslaw Pieniazek after becoming an associate professor got the permission to conduct free lectures in otolaryngology and rhinology at the Jagiellonian University and obtained to his disposal 10 beds in St. Lazarus Hospital. In 1889 Teodor Heryng initiated the Otolaryngological Section attached to the Warsaw Medical Society. In 1905 in the Lvov University Leslaw Gluzinski started lecturing in otolaryngology and Teofil Zalewski in otiatrics. In 1908 Antoni Jurasz - the pioneer of Otolaryngology in Germany - initiated the Chair and Clinic of Otolaryngology and managed it until 1919.

The independence period 1918-1939:

The most important role in the development of otolaryngology had in 5 university clinics: Cracow, Lvov, Poznan, Warsaw, Wilno. Polish Otolaryngological Society was founded in 1921. The journal. The "Polish Otolaryngology Review" was edited from 1924 to 1939, after the war as "Polish Otolaryngology".

Captivity period 1939-1944/45:

A great number of otolaryngologists were imprisoned in the concentration camps, from which some of them managed to get to Anders' Army and then to western countries. In Katyn und Charkow among 650 identified physicians - prisoners of Russian camps those killed by a routine shoot at the occiput were 16 otolaryngologists. Chairmen of the Department in Wilno and Lvov were captured in Gulag in Syberia, Prof. Miodonski in concentration camp in Sachsenhausen. During the war were organized 2 Department of Otolaryngology - one with secret underground University in Warsaw and another one in University in Edynburg. Many otolaryngologists were killed because of their Jewish origin. Out of 280 otolaryngologists, only about 100 persons. After the war - Clinic in Lvov and Wilno ware included to Russia. Now there are Clinics in Krakow, Katowice, Zabrze, Wroclav, Szczecin, Poznan, Bydgoszcz, Gdansk, Lodz, Warszawa, Lublin and Bialystok. Additionaly are 5 Pediatric Otolaryngolgy and one Phoniatric-Audiologic. There are following sections: oncology, audiology, phoniatrics, pediatrics laryngology, historics and rhinology. Now we have about 3500 otolaryngologists, in last congress in Lublin there were more then 1000 participiants.