gms | German Medical Science

GMS Journal for Medical Education

Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA)

ISSN 2366-5017

Welcome

GMS Journal for Medical Education (GMS J Med Educ) – formerly GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung – publishes scientific articles on all aspects of undergraduate and graduate education in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy and other health professions. Research and review articles, project reports, short communications as well as discussion papers and comments may be submitted. Manuscripts may be submitted in English or German. Each Articles will be translated into the other language respectively. GMS Journal for Medical Education is published regularly as an unrestricted open access journal with at least four issues per year. In addition, special issues on current topics in medical education research are also published.

The journal is the organ of the German Association for Medical Education (GMA) (http://www.gma-dach.org). Until 2015 the journal was published under its German name GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung.

Published articles are available worldwide to anyone who is interested: Without any delay, permanently, searchable and without costs. We cordially invite you to use our journal as a reader or as an author for the benefit of medical education.


Recent Publications
GMS Journal for Medical Education Volume 33

Issue 5

editorial Medical Education

Clinican Scientists? Medical Scientists? Clinician and Medical Science Educators!

Fischer MR, Fabry G
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc78 (20161115)
[Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical Skills

A station-based concept for teaching the neurological examination: A prospective quasi-experimental study

Brich J, Rijntjes M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc77 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Medical Teachers

The Effort and Reward of Teaching Medical Psychology in Germany: an Online Survey

Kendel F, Rockenbauch K, Deubner R, Philipp S, Fabry G
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc76 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Student Admission

Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

Obst KU, Brüheim L, Westermann J, Katalinic A, Kötter T
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc75 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Medical ethics

Medical Students’ Development of Ethical Judgment – Exploring the Learners’ Perspectives using a mixed methods approach

Langer T, Jazmati D, Jung O, Schulz C, Schnell MW
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc74 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Attitude towards and Readiness for Interprofessional Education in Medical and Nursing Students of Bern

Woermann U, Weltsch L, Kunz A, Stricker D, Guttormsen S
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc73 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Public Health

Prevention and health promotion from theory to practice: The interprofessional MeMPE Summer University for students of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Epidemiology

Idler N, Huber J, von Mutius S, Welbergen L, Fischer MR
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc72 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Medical Education Research

Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development – a case study

Prediger S, Harendza S
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc71 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Assessment

Workplace-based assessment of communication skills: A pilot project addressing feasibility, acceptance and reliability

Weyers S, Jemi I, Karger A, Raski B, Rotthoff T, Pentzek M, Mortsiefer A
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc70 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Letter to the editor

Training of practical skills – implementation in the D-A-CH-Region

Lischka M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc69 (20161115)
[Full Text] [PDF]
article Commentary

Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

Rehkämper G
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(5):Doc68 (20161115)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

Issue 4: Clinical skills

editorial Clinical skills

Didactic, practical, good! 20 years of clinical skills training in the German speaking countries

Stosch C, Schnabel KP
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc67 (20160815)
[Full Text] [PDF]
editorial Clinical skills

Practical Skills en route to Professionalism

Schnabel KP, Stosch C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc66 (20160815)
[Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Assessment formats in dental medicine: An overview

Gerhard-Szep S, Güntsch A, Pospiech P, Söhnel A, Scheutzel P, Wassmann T, Zahn T
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc65 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education – a review on methodological evidence

Vogel D, Harendza S
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc64 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Practical Clinical Training in Skills Labs: Theory and Practice

Bugaj TJ, Nikendei C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc63 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

The future of practical skills in undergraduate medical education – an explorative Delphi-Study

Dannenberg KA, Stroben F, Schröder T, Thomas A, Hautz WE
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc62 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Study on the Interrater Reliability of an OSPE (Objective Structured Practical Examination) – Subject to the Evaluation Mode in the Phantom Course of Operative Dentistry

Schmitt L, Möltner A, Rüttermann S, Gerhardt-Szép S
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc61 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Cllinical skills

Peyton's 4-Steps-Approach in comparison: Medium-term effects on learning external chest compression – a pilot study

Münster T, Stosch C, Hindrichs N, Franklin J, Matthes J
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc60 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Improved self- and external assessment of the clinical abilities of medical students through structured improvement measures in an internal medicine bedside course

Fünger SM, Lesevic H, Rosner S, Ott I, Berberat P, Nikendei C, Sonne C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc59 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

How well do final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills?

Störmann S, Stankiewicz M, Raes P, Berchtold C, Kosanke Y, Illes G, Loose P, Angstwurm MW
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc58 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

Weber U, Constantinescu MA, Woermann U, Schmitz F, Schnabel K
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc57 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Mastery learning improves students skills in inserting intravenous access: a pre-post-study

Friederichs H, Brouwer B, Marschall B, Weissenstein A
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc56 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

“PERLE bedside-examination-course for candidates in state examination” – Developing a training program for the third part of medical state examination (oral examination with practical skills)

Karthaus A, Schmidt A
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc55 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

“Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures” – Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education

Nikendei C, Ganschow P, Groener JB, Huwendiek S, Köchel A, Köhl-Hackert N, Pjontek R, Rodrian J, Scheibe F, Stadler AK, Steiner T, Stiepak J, Tabatabai J, Utz A, Kadmon M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc54 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Feedback promotes learning success! Which kind of feedback for the faculty is given by an interdisciplinary OSCE with focus on decision-making?

Stibane T, Sitter H, Neuhof D, Wiechens H, Schönbauer A, Bösner S, Baum E
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc53 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

"Peer2Peer" – A university program for knowledge transfer and consultation in dealing with psychosocial crises in med-school and medical career

Vajda C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc52 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical skills

Commentary: Clinical skills teaching in UK medical education as exemplified by the BM5 curriculum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton

Timm A, Polack C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc51 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
short report Clinical skills

“Pass, fail” – On Standard Setting Procedures for the Assessment of Practical Skills at Medical Schools in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

Bauer D, Huwendiek S, März M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc50 (20160815)
[Full Text] [PDF]
short report Clinical skills

Committee on Veterinary Medicine at the Society for Medical Education: Skills Labs in Veterinary Medicine – a brief overview

Dilly M, Gruber C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc49 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
short report Clinical skills

"Practical skills" – Positioning of the GMA committee for dentistry

Scheutzel P, Gerhard-Szép S
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(4):Doc48 (20160815)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

Issue 3

article Flipped Classroom

An Introduction to the Inverted/Flipped Classroom Model in Education and Advanced Training in Medicine and in the Healthcare Professions

Tolks D, Schäfer C, Raupach T, Kruse L, Sarikas A, Gerhardt-Szép S, Kllauer G, Lemos M, Fischer MR, Eichner B, Sostmann K, Hege I
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc46 (20160517)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Ethics of Medical Education

Awareness of ethical issues in medical education: an interactive teach-the-teacher course

Chiapponi C, Dimitriadis K, Özgül G, Siebeck RG, Siebeck M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc45 (20160517)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Quality of Assessment

An algorithm for calculating exam quality as a basis for performance-based allocation of funds at medical schools

Kirschstein T, Wolters A, Lenz JH, Fröhlich S, Hakenberg O, Kundt G, Darmüntzel M, Hecker M, Altiner A, Müller-Hilke B
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc44 (20160517)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Medical Communication

Learning Doctor-Patient Communication – Evaluating the effectiveness of the communication training course at Leipzig University from the students' point of view

Cämmerer J, Martin O, Rockenbauch K
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc43 (20160517)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Simulated Patients

Working as simulated patient has effects on real patient life – Preliminary insights from a qualitative study

Simmenroth-Nayda A, Marx G, Lorkowski T, Himmel W
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc42 (20160517)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Management Competencies

Simulating the physician as healthcare manager: An innovative course to train for the manager role

Gradel M, Moder S, Nicolai L, Pander T, Hoppe B, Pinilla S, Von der Borch P, Fischer MR, Dimitriadis K
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc41 (20160517)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical Rotations

Preparation courses for medical clerkships and the final clinical internship in medical education – The Magdeburg Curriculum for Healthcare Competence

Spura A, Werwick K, Feißel A, Gottschalk M, Winkler-Stuck K, Robra BP, Braun-Dullaeus RC, Stieger P
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc40 (20160517)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
letter to the editor Letter to the Editor

Letter to the editor regarding the editorial “Quo vadis? – Medical education 2020 between politics and science”

Chenot JF, Steinhäuser J, Bergmann A, Ehrhardt M, Spanke J, Simmenroth A
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(3):Doc39 (20160517)
[Full Text] [PDF]

Issue 2: Interprofessional Education

editorial Interprofessional Education

Special edition booklet: Interprofessional Training – Published by the Robert Bosch Stiftung and the Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung

Klapper B, Schirlo C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc38 (20160429)
[Full Text] [PDF]
editorial Interprofessional Education

Collaboration, cooperation, communication, contact and competencies

Thistlethwaite JE
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc37 (20160429)
[Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

More terminological clarity in the interprofessional field – a call for reflection on the use of terminologies, in both practice and research, on a national and international level

Mitzkat A, Berger S, Reeves S, Mahler C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc36 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Improving competencies in evidence-based dementia care: Results from a pilot study on a novel inter-professional training course (the KOMPIDEM project)

Balzer K, Schröder R, Junghans A, Stahl U, Träder JM, Köpke S
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc35 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Berlin in Motion: Interprofessional teaching and learning for students in the fields of medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and nursing (INTER-M-E-P-P)

Bohrer A, Heinze C, Höppner H, Behrend R, Czakert J, Hitzblech T, Kaufmann I, Maaz A, Räbiger J, Peters H
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc34 (20160429)
With Erratum (May 3, 2016)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Recommendations to enhance constructivist-based learning in Interprofessional Education using video-based self-assessment

Dahmen U, Schulze C, Schindler C, Wick K, Schwartze D, Veit A, Smolenski U
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc33 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Interprofessional Learning – Development and Implementation of Joint Medical Emergency Team Trainings for Medical and Nursing Students at Universitätsmedizin Greifswald

Partecke M, Balzer C, Finkenzeller I, Reppenhagen C, Hess U, Hahnenkamp K, Meissner K
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc32 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Comprehension through cooperation: Medical students and physiotherapy apprentices learn in teams – Introducing interprofessional learning at the University Medical Centre Mannheim, Germany

Mette M, Dölken M, Hinrichs J, Narciß E, Schüttpelz-Brauns K, Weihrauch U, Fritz HM
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc31 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Interprofessional peer-assisted learning as a low-threshold course for joint learning: Evaluation results of the interTUT Project

Reichel K, Dietsche S, Hölzer H, Ewers M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc30 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Interprofessional practice in health care: an educational project with four learning sequences for students from six study programs

Nowak AC, Klimke-Jung K, Schäfer T, Reif K
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc29 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Fostering interprofessional communication through case discussions and simulated ward rounds in nursing and medical education: A pilot project

Wershofen B, Heitzmann N, Beltermann E, Fischer MR
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc28 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Communicative positioning of one's own profession in interprofessional settings

Posenau A, Peters T
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc27 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Properties, promotive and obstructive conditions of multi-professional teaching and learning of health professions and non-health professions: an explorative survey from the perspective of teachers

Schmitz D, Höhmann U
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc26 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

The subjective experience of collaboration in interprofessional tutor teams: A qualitative study

Weber T, Hoffmann H
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc25 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Design and evaluation of an IPE module at the beginning of professional training in medicine, nursing, and physiotherapy

Zirn L, Körner M, Luzay L, Sandeck F, Müller-Fröhlich C, Straub C, Stößel U, Silbernagel W, Fischer J
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc24 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Communication in Health Professions: A European consensus on inter- and multi-professional learning objectives in German

Bachmann C, Kiessling C, Härtl A, Haak R
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc23 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Evaluation of interprofessional education: lessons learned through the development and implementation of an interprofessional seminar on team communication for undergraduate health care students in Heidelberg – a project report

Berger S, Mahler C, Krug K, Szecsenyi J, Schultz JH
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc22 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

The Conversion of a Peer Teaching Course in the Puncture of Peripheral Veins for Medical Students into an Interprofessional Course

Brem BG, Schaffner N, Schlegel CA, Fritschi V, Schnabel KP
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc21 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

First Contact: interprofessional education based on medical students' experiences from their nursing internship

Eich-Krohm A, Kaufmann A, Winkler-Stuck K, Werwick K, Spura A, Robra BP
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc20 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Simulating a patient's fall as a means to improve routine communication: Joint training for nursing and fifth-year medical students

Flentje M, Müßel T, Henzel B, Jantzen JP
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc19 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Interprofessional education in Erlangen: A needs analysis and the conceptual work of a student working group

Konietzko R, Frank L, Maudanz N, Binder J
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc18 (20160429)
With Erratum (Jul 11, 2016)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Self-perceived attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education among different health care professionals in pediatrics

Bode SF, Giesler M, Heinzmann A, Krüger M, Straub C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc17 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Interprofessional teaching and learning in the health care professions: A qualitative evaluation of the Robert Bosch Foundation's grant program "Operation Team"

Nock L
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc16 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Interprofessional education as part of becoming a doctor or physiotherapist in a competency-based curriculum

Sander O, Schmidt R, Rehkämper G, Lögters T, Zilkens C, Schneider M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc15 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Interprofessional Education

Students' Perceptions on an Interprofessional Ward Round Training – A Qualitative Pilot Study

Nikendei C, Huhn D, Pittius G, Trost Y, Bugaj TJ, Koechel A, Schultz JH
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(2):Doc14 (20160429)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

Issue 1

editorial Medical Education

Quo vadis? – Medical education 2020 between politics and science

Harendza S, Fischer MR, Fabry G
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc12 (20160215)
[Full Text] [PDF]
article Assisted Suicide

Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia and palliative sedation: attitudes and knowledge of medical students

Anneser J, Jox RJ, Thurn T, Borasio GD
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc11 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Patient Safety

The Learning Objective Catalogue for Patient Safety in Undergraduate Medical Education – A Position Statement of the Committee for Patient Safety and Error Management of the German Association for Medical Education

Kiesewetter J, Gutmann J, Drossard S, Gurrea Salas D, Prodinger W, Mc Dermott F, Urban B, Staender S, Baschnegger H, Hoffmann G, Hübsch G, Scholz C, Meier A, Wegscheider M, Hoffmann N, Ohlenbusch-Harke T, Keil S, Schirlo C, Kühne-Eversmann L, Heitzmann N, Busemann A, Koechel A, Manser T, Welbergen L, Kiesewetter I
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc10 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Veterinary Medical Education

Stressed out or subjective acquisition of competence – how do veterinary students see their curative work placement?

Dilly M, Tipold A, Geuenich K
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc9 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Medical Theses

Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates

Giesler M, Boeker M, Fabry G, Biller S
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc8 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Admission Tests

Academic Performance of Students with the Highest and Mediocre School-leaving Grades: Does the Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS) Balance Their Prognoses?

Kadmon G, Kadmon M
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc7 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Tuition

A study on effects of and stance over tuition fees

Karay Y, Matthes J
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc6 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Competence Based Medical Education

Vaccination: Developing and implementing a competency-based-curriculum at the Medical Faculty of LMU Munich

Vogel B, Reuter S, Taverna M, Fischer MR, Schelling J
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc5 (20160215)
With Erratum (Feb 25, 2016)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Clinical Rotations

The FAMULATUR PLUS as an innovative approach for teaching physical examination skills

Jerg A, Öchsner W, Wander H, Traue HC, Jerg-Bretzke L
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc4 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Preventing Students' Stress

Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

Bugaj TJ, Mücksch C, Schmid C, Junne F, Erschens R, Herzog W, Nikendei C
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc3 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
article Dental Education

Development and implementation of the Clinical Tooth Shade Differentiation Course – an evaluation over 3 years

Olms C, Haak R, Jakstat HA
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc2 (20160215)
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
thanks Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement to the Reviewers of GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung

Fischer MR, Fabry G
GMS J Med Educ 2016; 33(1):Doc1 (20160215)
[Full Text] [PDF]