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7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Annual Assembly of the German and the Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

26.-29.10.2011, Salzburg, Austria

Eccentric endurance training and its consequences on physical performance in sedentary overweight individuals

Meeting Abstract

  • corresponding author presenting/speaker Markus Zeppetzauer - VIVIT, Feldkirch, Austria
  • author presenting/speaker Thomas Bochdansky - Rehaklinik Montafon, Schruns, Austria
  • Anna-Lena Kollos - Rehaklinik Montafon, Schruns, Austria
  • Heinz Drexel - VIVIT, Feldkirch, Austria

7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Salzburg, 26.-29.10.2011. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2011. Doc11esm120

DOI: 10.3205/11esm120, URN: urn:nbn:de:0183-11esm1201

Published: October 24, 2011

© 2011 Zeppetzauer et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.en). You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.


Outline

Text

Objective: Overweight and its severe consequences are known as activator and accessory symptom of lifestyle diseases [1]. As a part of exercise interventions of the current guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type-II-diabetes strength training is a major topic [2]. Continuous training and increasing endurance are the basis for beneficial effects. Three different types of muscle activity are known. Concentric exercise (CE) as a consequence of active motion where the muscle strength exceeds external force, eccentric exercise (EE) as a consequence of passive motion, where external force exceeds internal strength and isometric exercise without visible motion, where external force is equal to internal strength [3]. Daily exercise is a mixture of concentric and eccentric exercise for movement and isometric exercise for static work. Concentric exercise is needed more in hiking upwards, whereas hiking downwards includes eccentric exercise more. Eccentric endurance training mixes high muscle force loads with low cardiovascular effort [4]. Therefore we investigated the effects of eccentric endurance training on cardiorespiratory parameters in overweight healthy individuals.

Material/Methods: After acceptance from the institutional review board and the Ethics Committee of Vorarlberg physical examination 55 individuals (gender: 36f/19m; age: 50±10.8a; BMI: 28.4±4.5kg/m2) absolved an 8-week intervention of downhill walking with hiking poles with a minimum of three bouts per week (distance: 4.2km; height: 636m). Participants therefore used a cable car connection for reaching the beginning of the track. Usage of cable-car connection also recorded compliance. Pre- and post intervention testing was made for cardiorespiratory parameters. Therefore participants absolved a treadmill ergospirometry till exhaustion. Relative maximum volume of oxygen consumption (relVO2max) was measured. For interval scaled parameters with normal distribution students t-test was used to perform a comparison of means. A statistical level of significance was accepted with 5% using SPSS 15.0 (IBM Corporation, USA).

Results: After exclusion of 3 participants because of missing hiking times compliance was 94.5%. Change in Body Mass Index was not reported for both gender (f: p=0.149; m: p=0.450). No difference in hiking times was reported (p=0.325). Because of a statistically significant difference in pretested strength parameters for male and female participants (p<0.001) further calculations were made separated for both groups. Improvement in relVO2max was statistically significant (f: 2.8 ml/min/kg [10.5 %], p<0.001; m: 3.8 ml/min/kg [+11.6 %], p<0.012). No statistically significant change in capillary lactate samples (1.4±0.5 mmol/l) during intervention was measured for both sexes.

Conclusion: Despite low cardiovascular stress eight weeks of eccentric endurance exercise show benefits in cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy overweight individuals. Therefore we recommend this exercise modality to sedentary overweight individuals.


References

1.
Tuomilehto J, et al. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(18):1343-50.
2.
Marwick TH, et al. AHA scientific statement: Exercise training for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; impact on cardiovascular risk. Circulation. 2009;119:3244-62.
3.
Faulkner JA. Terminology for contractions of muscles during shortening, while isometric, and during lengthening. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95:455-9.
4.
Drexel H, Saely CH, Langer P, Loruenser G, Marte T, Risch L, Hoefle G, Aczel S. Metabolic and anti-inflammatory benefits of eccentric endurance exercise – a pilot study. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008;38(4):218-26.