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7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Annual Assembly of the German and the Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

26.-29.10.2011, Salzburg, Austria

Isokinetic evaluation of the extensors and flexors muscles of the knee joint in elite track and field Athletes

Meeting Abstract

  • author presenting/speaker Konstantinos Tsitas - National Track & Field Centre, Sports Medicine Clinic of S.E.G.A.S., Thesaloniki, Greece
  • author Nikos Malliaropoulos - National Track & Field Centre, Sports Medicine Clinic of S.E.G.A.S., Thesaloniki, Greece
  • corresponding author Olga Kiritsi - National Track & Field Centre, Sports Medicine Clinic of S.E.G.A.S.,Thessaloniki, Greece
  • author Dimitris Christodoulou - National Track & Field Centre, Sports Medicine Clinic of S.E.G.A.S., Thesaloniki, Greece
  • author Christos Galazoulas - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • author George Noussios - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Serres, Greece

7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Salzburg, 26.-29.10.2011. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2011. Doc11esm021

DOI: 10.3205/11esm021, URN: urn:nbn:de:0183-11esm0216

Published: October 24, 2011

© 2011 Tsitas et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/deed.en). You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.


Outline

Text

Objective: The isokinetic systems are used for the evaluation and rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system, by measuring and comparing strength and performance [1]. The isokinetic measurement and evaluation of the extensors and flexors of the knee joint contributes to prevention and rehabilitation of injuries in sprinters [2].

In the present study, our aim was to measure and evaluate the strength of the extensors and flexors of the knee joint with the help of an isokinetic system. Secondly, our objective was to compare the extensors/flexors ratio at the dominant and non-dominant leg in elite track and field athletes.

Material/Methods: Ten elite track and field athletes (male, mean age 23,5±1,77) participated in our study. They were all runners as well as members of the Greek national team. No one suffered an injury either in the knee joint or at the flexors or extensors muscles, for the past 2 years.

Our protocol included isokinetic measurement and evaluation of the strength of the flexors and the extensors muscles of the knee joint at two angular velocities:

i) High angular velocity of 210 °/sec

ii) Low angular velocity of 60 °/sec,

followed by comparison between the dominant and non-dominant side. In addition, we recorded the flexors/extensors knee join muscles ratio.

Results: The average percentage of flexor / extensor knee joint muscles ratio at a high speed of 210o/sec was 86.30±9.04% at the dominant side and 78.45±12.24% at the non-dominant. The average percentage ratio at low speed of 60 °/sec was 78.30±2.35% at the dominant leg and 76.30±5.90% at the residual lower limb. The difference between the dominant and non-dominant side at low speed of 60 °/sec was 3.6±2.37% sec for the extensors and 5.8±5,05% for the flexors.

Conclusion: According to our results, the elite track and field runners demonstrated flexor / extensor knee joint muscles ratio significantly greater than 60% [78.30±2.35% and the dominant side and 76.30±5.90% at the non-dominant leg] [3]. Moreover, the mean percentage difference between the dominant leg and the residual lower limb was less than 10% for both extensors and flexors muscles of the knee joint [extensors, 3.6±2.37%; flexors 5.8±5.05%], when the reported values – threshold to injury prevention is 15-20% [4]. The aforementioned values are likely related to achieving high performance and probably prevent new injuries or recurrences (Grace et al. 1984, [5].


References

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Olmo J, Morate F. Rehabilitation of specific muscular force of the knee in soccer players: isokinetic goals for maximum force, rapid force and force endurance. XIV International Congress on Sports Rehabilation and Traumatology. 2005. Bolognia/Italy.
2.
Malliaropoulos N. Hamstring injuries. Conjoined meeting of ORTHOTEMATH and Sports Medicine Association of Greece, 2005, Thessaloniki/Greece.
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Coombs and Garbutt. Developments in the Use of the Hamstring/Quadriceps Ratio for the Assessment of Muscle Imbalance. J Sports Sci. 2002;1:56-62.
4.
Fowler NE, & Reilly T. Assessment of muscle strength asymmetry in soccer players. In: EJ Lovesey, ed. Contemporary Ergonomics. London: Taylor and Francis; 1993. p. 327-32.
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Rahnama N, Reilly T, Lees A, Graham-Smith P. Muscle fatigue induced by exercise simulating the work rate of competitive soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2003;21:933-42.