gms | German Medical Science

59th Annual Meeting of the German Society of Neurosurgery (DGNC)
3rd Joint Meeting with the Italian Neurosurgical Society (SINch)

German Society of Neurosurgery (DGNC)

1 - 4 June 2008, Würzburg

Development of a multimodal vascular phantom for evaluation of angiographic procedures: Accuracy of 3D-DSA, 3D-CTA, 3D-MRA and 3D Power Doppler US

Entwicklung eines multimodalen Gefäßphantoms zur Evaluation der Genauigkeit der angiographischen Verfahren 3D-DSA, 3D-CTA, 3D-MRA und 3D-Power-Doppler

Meeting Abstract

  • corresponding author C. Galander - Klinik für Neurochirurgie der Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Deutschland
  • D. Lindner - Klinik für Neurochirurgie der Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Deutschland
  • C. Trantakis - Klinik für Neurochirurgie der Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Deutschland
  • W. Korb - Innovation Center Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS), Leipzig, Deutschland
  • P. Liebmann - Innovation Center Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS), Leipzig, Deutschland
  • J. Meixensberger - Klinik für Neurochirurgie der Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Deutschland

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie. Società Italiana di Neurochirurgia. 59. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie e.V. (DGNC), 3. Joint Meeting mit der Italienischen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (SINch). Würzburg, 01.-04.06.2008. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2008. DocDI.01.02

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Published: May 30, 2008

© 2008 Galander et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objective: Precise knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic procedures is essential for optimal operative results in neurosurgery. Current 3D-ultrasound studies make only qualitative statements of precision in comparison with other modalities. Furthermore, no vascular phantom exists in recent literature, which warrants a direct compatibility with all angiographic processes. It was our goal to engineer a multimodal vascular phantom which enables a standardized comparison with DSA, CTA, MRA and 3D-power Doppler ultrasound (3D-PDUS) for the first time.

Methods: Using various approaches and materials, we built four generations of phantoms. The fourth one consists of the following structural elements: a tank of Perspex, 2 systems of silicon tubes as vessel-simulating-material (with diameters of 2 mm and 4 mm), tissue-mimic-material and water mixed with an anti-foam-emulsion as blood-simulating fluid. Two 12V-pumps and a programmable controller keep the circulation system running. By means of this setting the data were ascertained with CTA (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens, Germany), MRA (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Germany) and 3D PDUS (Sonoline GS60, Siemens, Germany with 6,5 MHz US probe). After acquisition the records were processed with a segmentation tool and evaluated in focus on vessel diameter.

Results: The analyzed datasets of every modality showed a non-complicated representation of both vessel systems. The CTA showed a generally overestimation of the diameters. The MRA datasets tended to underestimate the vessel diameters. 3D-PDUS depended on penetrations depth and showed a trend of overestimation, too. For every angiographic procedure resulted in following average deviations for the 4mm- system (CTA, MRA and PDUS in mm): +0,8 (SD±0,21), -0,01 (SD±0,14), +0,45 (SD±0,17). The 2mm- system reached a average deviation of +0,36 (SD±0,40), -0,22 (SD±0,38) und +1,05 (SD±0,17).

Conclusions: The vascular phantom warranted functionality in all angiographic modalities. It showed a good control and stability of the laminar flow. We reached a realistic simulation of tissue and vessels and it was possible to get standardized image datasets even of the phantom itself. The test series allowed an outlook of accuracy of the angiographic procedures. The 3D-PDUS obtained a good result, especially in the 4mm system, in which it correlated in a respectable result with MRA and excelled CTA.