gms | German Medical Science

7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Annual Assembly of the German and the Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

26.-29.10.2011, Salzburg, Österreich

Survey the effect of motivational intervention on learning and performance of the discrete motor skill (free throw basketball)

Meeting Abstract

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7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Salzburg, 26.-29.10.2011. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2011. Doc11esm103

doi: 10.3205/11esm103, urn:nbn:de:0183-11esm1038

Veröffentlicht: 24. Oktober 2011

© 2011 Torabi et al.
Dieser Artikel ist ein Open Access-Artikel und steht unter den Creative Commons Lizenzbedingungen ( Er darf vervielfältigt, verbreitet und öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden, vorausgesetzt dass Autor und Quelle genannt werden.



Objective: Arousal and condition of it is one of the major environmental factors that is influence performance and learning of motor skills through motivating subjects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to survey the effect of audience presence as a motivational intervention on learning and performance of free throw basketball skill.

Material/Methods: Subjects were 24 healthy and non-athlete girls that were divided into two groups of audience (n=12) and control (n=12) randomly. Protocol of acquisition stage concluded free throw basketball for 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week with 15 trails in each session with the presence of motivational factor in separate groups. Scores of free throw basketball test was record per session, and then post test was carried out and finally after 2 weeks detraining, retention test was done in the same condition and transfer test like the real world of competition (in the presence of audience for two groups) was performed 24 hours later.

Results: Results showed that all groups improved through acquisition stage and there was no significant difference in free throw basketball scores between 3 groups in acquisition test (p=0.145). But in retention and transfer test, results was in advantage of music and audience groups, in retention test music group achieved the highest scores and in transfer test music and audience groups was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000).

Conclusion: The both groups improved up to 80% in post test of acquisition stage. This finding is in agreement with Social Facilitation Theory that indicates presence of audience facilitates sport performance [1], [2]. However, process of change up to retention test in audience group was increasingly but in control group decreased 7.6%. Another finding was that in transfer situation to real world, audience group had a permanent learning of free throw basketball skill than control group, so that scores of audience group enhanced 21% from the retention performance level, as well as the researches done in this area [3], [4], [5].


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