gms | German Medical Science

10. Kongress für Infektionskrankheiten und Tropenmedizin (KIT 2010)

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Infektiologie,
Deutsche AIDS-Gesellschaft,
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Tropenmedizin und Internationale Gesundheit,
Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft für Chemotherapie

23.06. - 26.06.2010, Köln

Sustainable control of tungiasis (jigger flea infestation) in a heavily affected community in Lagos State, Nigeria

Nachhaltige Kontrolle der Tungiasis (Sandfloherkrankung) in einem stark betroffenen Gebiet in Lagos State, Nigeria

Meeting Abstract

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  • U.S. Ugbomoiko - Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
  • L. Ariza - Post-Graduation Program in Medical Sciences, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil
  • J. Heukelbach - School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil

10. Kongress für Infektionskrankheiten und Tropenmedizin (KIT 2010). Köln, 23.-26.06.2010. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2010. DocP92

doi: 10.3205/10kit147, urn:nbn:de:0183-10kit1470

Published: June 2, 2010

© 2010 Ugbomoiko et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objectives: To describe the impact of a community-based intervention against tungiasis (jigger flea infestation) in a severely affected community in Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria.

Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were carried out in the rural community of Erekiti, during high transmission season (January 2006 and January 2007). Individuals were examined for the presence of tungiasis (first survey n=557; second survey n=540), and lesions were counted. In the first survey, risk factors were also assessed using structured questionnaires. Based modifiable risk factors identified, a community-based intervention was done in collaboration with traditional leaders (Baales). The risk factors addressed were: sand of clay inside the house serving as breeding sites (population attributable fraction [PAF] = 73.7%), common resting place outside the house (PAF=65.5%), no regular use of footwear (PAF=51.1%), and presence of free-roaming pigs on the compound (PAF=37.9%).

Results: Compliance rate of banning pigs in the community was very satisfactory, and the few remaining pigs in the village were kept confined on the compounds. Compliance to the regular use of footwear was satisfactory. The number of houses with cemented floors increased. However, environmental hygiene aiming at the reduction of breeding sites showed only fair compliance. Prevalence decreased from 45.2% (95% confidence interval: 41.1–49.5) to 21.3% (17.9–25.0) one year after intervention (p<0.0001). A total number of lesions of 3,111 were counted in the first survey, which was reduced to 617 lesions in the second survey.

Conclusions: Evidence-based sustainable control of tungiasis is possible at low cost in heavily affected communities. Collaboration with traditional leaders is crucial.