gms | German Medical Science

Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA)

16.11. - 18.11.2007, Hannover

Living anatomy for dental students: Inspection of oral cavity in gross anatomy course: anatomical variations and pathological findings

Anatomie am Lebenden für Zahnmedizinstudierende: Mundhöhleninspektion als Element im Kurs Makroskopische Anatomie: anatomische Variationen und pathologische Befunde


  • author Constanze Michal-Müller - Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Neuroanatomie, Hannover, Deutschland
  • Hans-Joachim Kretschmann - Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Neuroanatomie, Hannover, Deutschland
  • corresponding author Claudia Grothe - Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Neuroanatomie, Hannover, Deutschland

Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung - GMA. Hannover, 16.-18.11.2007. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2007. Doc07gma91

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Published: November 14, 2007

© 2007 Michal-Müller et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



Teaching anatomy only with fixed cadaver specimens includes specific problems, as the fixed specimens do not show all anatomical structures which can be found in the living organism. In the oral cavity it is e.g. the parotid papilla, the sublingual and the pharyngeal region which cannot satisfying be demonstrated with all structures in fixed cadavers. Additionally the transfer of theoretical anatomical facts on living anatomy early facilitates the students in considering clinical relevance of anatomical topics. Thus for many years the inspection of the oral cavity is an important part of the course of gross anatomy for dental students at the Hannover Medical School. After a short introducing lecture, performed by a dental practiser, which gives theoretical and practical background the students have to examine each other’s oral cavity and are advised to document their findings in a standard protocol of oral examination similar to that used in clinical courses. Interesting findings like anatomical variations or pathological findings are simultaneously documented by digital photography and immediately summarized in a beamer presentation at the end of the course. The poster presents a selection of the most interesting findings over the last years showing a picture collection of many different cases.