gms | German Medical Science

7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Annual Assembly of the German and the Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

26.-29.10.2011, Salzburg, Austria

The effect presence of audience and music as motivational factors on learning and performance of the continuous motor skills

Meeting Abstract

Search Medline for

7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Salzburg, 26.-29.10.2011. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2011. Doc11esm104

doi: 10.3205/11esm104, urn:nbn:de:0183-11esm1044

Published: October 24, 2011

© 2011 Torabi.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objective: The aim of this study was to survey the effect of motivational factors by the presence of audience and music on learning and performance of dribbling basketball as the continuous motor skill.

Material/Methods: Subjects were 36 healthy and non-athlete girls with the mean and standard deviation of age (21.8±2.23 years), height (163.4±6.19Cm) and weight (57.5±10.13Kg), that were divided into three groups of audience (n=12), music (n=12) and control (n=12) randomly. Protocol of acquisition stage concluded dribbling basketball Harrison Test for 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week for 30 seconds duration in each session with the presence of motivational factors in separate groups. Score of dribbling basketball test was record per session, and then post test was carried out and finally after 2 weeks detraining, retention test was done in the same condition and transfer test like the real word of competition (in the presence of music and audience) was performed 24 hours later. In order to become subjects in the same level of arousal base used rest heart rate index.

Results: To analyze data one way ANOVAs test, repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni Post Hoc test was used. Results showed that all groups improved through acquisition stage and also there was significant difference in dribbling basketball scores between 3 groups in acquisition test (p=0.000) that this difference was more benefit in control group than two other groups. But in retention and transfer test, results was in advantage of music and audience groups, in retention test audience group achieved the highest scores and in transfer test music and audience groups was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000).

Conclusion: In this research we found that motivational factors can performe as refinment to improve sport performance and motor learning.


Martens R. J personality and social psychology. 1969;12.
Carron AV, Loughhead TM, Bray SR. J of Sport Sci. 2005; 23(4):395-407.
Baghurst T, Fort I, Cook R. J Coaching Education. 2008;1(1).