gms | German Medical Science

7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Annual Assembly of the German and the Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Austrian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

26.-29.10.2011, Salzburg, Austria

Neurofeedback Training Enhances Psycho-physiological and Performance Level of University Archery Players

Meeting Abstract

Search Medline for

  • corresponding author presenting/speaker Sathiyaseelan Ganesan - Department of Sports Medicine & Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India
  • author Maman Paul - Department of Sports Medicine & Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India
  • author Jaspal Singh Sandhu - Department of Sports Medicine & Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India

7th EFSMA – European Congress of Sports Medicine, 3rd Central European Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Salzburg, 26.-29.10.2011. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2011. Doc11esm024

doi: 10.3205/11esm024, urn:nbn:de:0183-11esm0242

Published: October 24, 2011

© 2011 Ganesan et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objective: The objectives of the present study were to find out the effect of sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback training on Heart Rate Changes, Pre-Competition Pleasure Level, Post-Competition Pleasure Level, Pre-Competition Arousal Level, Post-Competition Arousal Level, Performance Level, Precision, SMR/ theta ratio and SMR epoch mean of archers during competition.

Material/Methods: Twenty four right handed university level archery players both male (16 subjects) and female (8 subjects) were included by Random Sampling technique. They were randomly divided into Experimental group (n=12) and Control group (n=12), average age of (21.96±1.601) years and experience of (4.31±1.081) years. Pre-post measurements of heart rate, pre and post competition pleasure-arousal level, precision, performance and baseline assessment of EEG components (SMR/ theta ratio and SMR epoch mean) were taken for both control and experimental group archers. None of the subjects had been introduced previously to neurofeedback training and had no history of head injury. They were asked to refrain from any kind of mental training techniques or any meditation during the period of intervention.

Results: The statistical analysis reveals that Pre-Competition Pleasure Level (p<0.05), Pre-Competition Arousal Level (p<0.05), Post-Competition Arousal Level (p<0.01) and SMR/ theta ratio (p<0.05) showed statistically significant difference bvetween two groups after intervening with twelve sessions of SMR neurofeedback to experimental group.

Conclusion: The application of SMR neurofeedback on archery players improved the regulation of pleasure-arousal level and EEG components. Further more, the result of the present study suggests that neurofeedback training enhances the archery players accuracy through combined activation and regulation of psycho-physiological and neuro-physiological functions during performance.

Figure 1 [Fig. 1], Figure 2 [Fig. 2], Figure 3 [Fig. 3], Figure 4 [Fig. 4], Figure 5 [Fig. 5], Figure 6 [Fig. 6], Figure 7 [Fig. 7], Figure 8 [Fig. 8], Figure 9 [Fig. 9], Table 1 [Tab. 1], Table 2 [Tab. 2], Table 3 [Tab. 3].


Gould D, Krane V. The arousal-athletic performance relationship: Current status and future directions. Advances in Sports Psychology. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1992.
Landers DM, Petruzzello SJ, Salazar W, Crews DJ, Kubitz KA, Gannon TL, Han M. The influence of electrocortical biofeedback on performance in pre-elite archers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1991;23(1):123-9.
Russell JA, Weiss A, Mendelsohn GA. Affect grid: A single-item scale of pleasure and arousal. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. 1989;57(3):493–502.
Vernon DJ. Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implication for future research. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 2005;30(4):347-64.
Weber E, Koberl A, Doppelmeyr M. Predict successful learning of SMR neurofeedback in healthy participants: methodology consideration. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 2010;36(1):37-45. DOI: 10.1007/s10484-010-9142-x. External link