gms | German Medical Science

102. Jahrestagung der DOG

Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft e. V.

23. bis 26.09.2004, Berlin

Effects of dye solutions for vitreoretinal surgery on retinal function in superfused vertebrate retina

Meeting Abstract

  • corresponding author C. Lüke - Zentrum für Augenheilkunde der Universität Köln
  • M. Lüke - Zentrum für Augenheilkunde der Universität Köln
  • A. Hueber - Zentrum für Augenheilkunde der Universität Köln
  • J. Jordan - Zentrum für Augenheilkunde der Universität Köln
  • B. Kirchhof - Zentrum für Augenheilkunde der Universität Köln
  • W. Sickel - Institut für Neurophysiologie der Universität Köln

Evidenzbasierte Medizin - Anspruch und Wirklichkeit. 102. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft. Berlin, 23.-26.09.2004. Düsseldorf, Köln: German Medical Science; 2004. Doc04dogSO.01.11

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Published: September 22, 2004

© 2004 Lüke et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.




Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. Recently, there have been reports on potential side effects mainly of indocyanine green on pigment epithelial and retinal function. In the present study we investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function.


Bovine retina preparations were perfused with an oxygen preequilibrated standard solution. The electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded using AgAgCl electrodes. After recording of stable ERG amplitudes the nutrient solution was substituted by one of the dye solutions. The duration of retinal exposure to a dye solution was varied between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. Thereupon the preparation was reperfused with standard solution for at least 100 minutes. The percentage of b-wave reduction after exposition was calculated.


Reductions of the b-wave amplitude were found for each dye solution tested. The effects after application of patent blue and indocyanine green were completely reversible within the recovery time for an exposure period of 60 and 30 seconds, respectively. The application of trypan blue lead to a loss of the b-wave when the retina was exposed for 15 seconds or longer. This effect was only partly reversible within the recovery time.


The ERG showed toxic effects of trypan blue after a short period of retinal exposure. The intraocular application of trypan blue should be limited to selected cases. However, intraocular application of indocyanine green and patent blue in a sufficient concentration and taking account of a short period of retinal exposure seems possible.