gms | German Medical Science

22nd International Congress of German Ophthalmic Surgeons

18. to 21.06.2009, Nürnberg

Keynote Lecture: Refractive surgery for a lifetime

Meeting Abstract

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  • G.O. Waring - Atlanta, USA

22. Internationaler Kongress der Deutschen Ophthalmochirurgen. Nürnberg, 18.-21.06.2009. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2009. Doc09docH 1a.12

doi: 10.3205/09doc007, urn:nbn:de:0183-09doc0078

Published: July 9, 2009

© 2009 Waring.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



Many ophthalmic surgeons and their patients consider refractive surgery a one-time intervention. “I had LASIK.” A more appropriate perspective is to consider refractive surgery as a sequence of repeated or combined procedures that can occur over a lifetime. In this presentation, one theoretical patient is followed from adolescence through the 9th decade, receiving a refractive surgical procedure every decade to decrease dependence on spectacles and contact lenses. The techniques illustrated are those currently available.