gms | German Medical Science

59th Annual Meeting of the German Society of Neurosurgery (DGNC)
3rd Joint Meeting with the Italian Neurosurgical Society (SINch)

German Society of Neurosurgery (DGNC)

1 - 4 June 2008, Würzburg

Intraoperative fluorescence angiography with fluorescein sodium and specific filter combinations previously used for ALA-induced porphyrins

Intraoperative Fluoreszenzangiographie mit Fluoreszein unter Verwendung eine Operationsmikroskops mit spezifischen Filtern für die ALA-Fluoreszenz gestützte Tumorresektion

Meeting Abstract

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  • corresponding author W. Stummer - Neurochirurgische Klinik, Universtitätsklinikum Düsseldorf
  • D. Hänggi - Neurochirurgische Klinik, Universtitätsklinikum Düsseldorf
  • H.-J. Steiger - Neurochirurgische Klinik, Universtitätsklinikum Düsseldorf

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie. Società Italiana di Neurochirurgia. 59. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie e.V. (DGNC), 3. Joint Meeting mit der Italienischen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (SINch). Würzburg, 01.-04.06.2008. Düsseldorf: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; 2008. DocDI.01.08

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Published: May 30, 2008

© 2008 Stummer et al.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( You are free: to Share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objective: Indocyanine green has recently been explored for intraoperative fluorescence angiography in vascular neurosurgery. Sodium fluorescein is used routinely for retinal angiography. Since the emission peak of fluorescence (490nm) is within the wavelength visible with the filter combinations employed for fluorescence-guided glioma surgery with ALA (>455nm), we wanted to know whether fluorescein angiography of intracranial vessels would give useful and direct inraoperative information during vascular neurosurgery without the necessity of image processing.

Methods: Using a standard NC4 Zeiss microscope modified for ALA-fluorescence-guided glioma surgery, 10 patients with cerebral aneurysms were examined. A 5ml bolus of sodium fluorescein (10%, Alcon) was administered intravenously. Aneurysma filling, patency of parent vessels and of perforators were visually assessed using the fluorescence mode of the microscope and recorded electronically.

Results: In all cases parent vessels and small perforators were excellently visualized in a real-time fashion after fluorescein administration. Fluorescence-intensity was strong enough to enable direct inspection and manipulation of vessels during surgery with the unaided eye. Even parenchymal vessels in the submillimeter range were clearly highlighted.

Conclusions: Fluorescein angiography using a standard surgical microscope equipped for ALA-fluorescence-guided glioma surgery is highly feasible and provides a simple tool for neurosurgeons that already have this technical modality integrated into their microscopes. The ability to observe the vessels without intervening image processing has the distinct advantage of allowing direct vessel identification and manipulation.